In 1767, John Quincy Adams, the sixth president of the United States, was born in Braintree, Massachusetts.
In 1798, the U.S. Marine Corps was formally re-established by a congressional act that also created the U.S. Marine Band.
In 1804, Vice President Aaron Burr mortally wounded former Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton during a pistol duel in Weehawken, New Jersey.
In 1864, Confederate forces led by Lt. Gen. Jubal Early began an abortive invasion of Washington, turning back the next day.
In 1922, the Hollywood Bowl officially opened with a program called “Symphonies Under the Stars” with Alfred Hertz conducting the Los Angeles Philharmonic.
In 1934, President Franklin D. Roosevelt became the first incumbent chief executive to travel through the Panama Canal.
In 1937, American composer and pianist George Gershwin died at a Los Angeles hospital of a brain tumor; he was 38.
In 1952, the Republican National Convention, meeting in Chicago, nominated Dwight D. Eisenhower for president and Richard M. Nixon for vice president.
In 1960, the novel “To Kill a Mockingbird” by Harper Lee was first published by J.B. Lippincott and Co.
In 1974, the House Judiciary Committee released volumes of evidence it had gathered in its Watergate inquiry.
In 1979, the abandoned U.S. space station Skylab made a spectacular return to Earth, burning up in the atmosphere and showering debris over the Indian Ocean and Australia.
In 1989, actor and director Laurence Olivier died in Steyning, West Sussex, England, at age 82.