In 1611, Sir Thomas Dale arrived in the Virginia Colony, where, as deputy governor, he instituted harsh measures to restore order.
In 1775, Ethan Allen and his Green Mountain Boys, along with Col. Benedict Arnold, captured the British-held fortress at Ticonderoga, N.Y.
In 1863, during the Civil War, Confederate Lt. Gen. Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson died of pneumonia, a complication resulting from being hit by friendly fire eight days earlier during the Battle of Chancellorsville in Virginia.
In 1869, a golden spike was driven in Promontory, Utah, marking the completion of the first transcontinental railroad in the United States.
In 1924, J. Edgar Hoover was named acting director of the Bureau of Investigation (later known as the Federal Bureau of Investigation, or FBI).
In 1933, the Nazis staged massive public book burnings in Germany.
In 1939, the Methodist Episcopal Church, the Methodist Episcopal Church South and the Methodist Protestant Church merged to form the Methodist Church.
In 1941, Adolf Hitler’s deputy, Rudolf Hess, parachuted into Scotland on what he claimed was a peace mission. (Hess ended up serving a life sentence at Spandau Prison until 1987, when he apparently committed suicide.)
In 1960, the nuclear-powered submarine USS Triton completed its submerged navigation of the globe.
In 1977, actress Joan Crawford died in New York.
In 1984, the International Court of Justice said the United States should halt any actions to blockade Nicaragua’s ports (the U.S. had already said it would not recognize World Court jurisdiction on this issue).
In 1994, the state of Illinois executed serial killer John Wayne Gacy, 52, for the murders of 33 young men and boys.
Ten years ago: President George W. Bush reacted with “deep disgust and disbelief” during a Pentagon visit as he examined new photos and video clips of American soldiers abusing Iraqi prisoners. Citigroup agreed to pay $2.65 billion to settle a lawsuit brought by WorldCom investors who’d lost billions when company went bankrupt in an accounting scandal.
Five years ago: House Speaker Nancy Pelosi made a surprise one-day visit to Baghdad to discuss U.S.-Iraqi economic relations with the prime minister. Pope Benedict XVI urged Middle East Christians to persevere in their faith as 20,000 people filled a Jordanian sports stadium where the pontiff celebrated the first open-air Mass of his Holy Land pilgrimage. Russia defended its gold medal at the World Hockey Championships in Bern, Switzerland, beating Canada 2-1 in a rematch of the previous year’s final.
One year ago: The Internal Revenue Service apologized for what it acknowledged was “inappropriate” targeting of conservative political groups during the 2012 election to see if they were violating their tax-exempt status. U.S government scientists said worldwide levels of carbon dioxide, the chief greenhouse gas blamed for global warming, had hit a milestone, reaching an amount never before encountered by humans.
Today’s Birthdays: Author Bel Kaufman (“Up the Down Staircase”) is 103. Author Barbara Taylor Bradford is 81. Rhythm-and-blues singer Henry Fambrough (The Spinners) is 76. Actor David Clennon is 71. Writer-producer-director Jim Abrahams is 70. Singer Donovan is 68. Singer-songwriter Graham Gouldman (10cc) is 68. Singer Dave Mason is 68. Actor Mike Hagerty is 60. Actor Bruce Penhall is 57. Former Sen. Rick Santorum, R-Pa., is 56. Actress Victoria Rowell is 55. Rock singer Bono (BAH’-noh) (U2) is 54. Rock musician Danny Carey (Tool) is 53. Actor Darryl M. Bell is 51. Playwright Suzan-Lori Parks is 51. Model Linda Evangelista is 49. Rapper Young MC is 47. Actor Erik Palladino is 46. Rock singer Richard Patrick (Filter) is 46. Actor Lenny Venito is 45. Actor Dallas Roberts is 44. Actor-singer Todd Lowe is 42. Country musician David Wallace (Cole Deggs and the Lonesome) is 42. Actress Andrea Anders is 39. Race car driver Helio Castroneves (EHL’-ee-oh kas-troh-NEH’-ves) is 39. Rock musician Jesse Vest is 37. Actor Kenan Thompson is 36. Rhythm-and-blues singer Jason Dalyrimple (Soul For Real) is 34. Rock musician Joey Zehr (The Click Five) is 31. Singer Ashley Poole (Dream) is 29. Actress Odette Annable is 29. Actress Lauren Potter is 24. Olympic gold medal swimmer Missy Franklin is 19.